All about Diet

Mankind fills no container worse than he fills his stomach.

In the past most illness was mostly the result of a lack, such as warmth, food etc. Now it is mostly due to excess and in particular excess of the wrong food or food in general.


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Shangri-la Diet

The Shangri-la diet is not a diet in the usual sense of a set of meal plans or detailed instructions about calorie intake and nutrition. The book that was published in 2006, The Shangri-la Diet, is perhaps better described as a discussion of a psychological theory about human appetite than a diet book strictly speaking. The core of the author's theory is that people gain weight because they have been conditioned to have a strong association between food and flavor, which keeps the appetite demanding more of a specific source of calories in order to continue tasting the flavor. If a person can break the association between flavor and food intake, they can lose weight because they won't feel hungry as often or as intensely. The book suggests several ways in which this association can be broken, thus leading to lifelong reduction in calorie intake with relatively little physical or emotional distress. As one newspaper reporter describes the diet, ". . . it seems that you may eat whatever you wish under the [author's] plan, but you just won';t want to." The diet has generated considerable controversy since its publication, not only in regard to its theory of appetite and weight control, but also about the role of expertreview and clinical trials in evaluating new diets.

The name of the Shangri-la diet comes from a novel titled Lost Horizon, written in 1933 by James Hilton about a mythical paradise called Shangri-la, hidden from the world somewhere in the Himalayas and guided by the wisdom of a Tibetan lama. The word Shangri-la entered English common speech as a synonym for a utopia or Garden of Eden when Frank Capra directed a movie based on Hilton's novel in 1937. Seth Roberts, the author of The Shangri-la Diet, maintains that he chose the name of his diet because of its association with an earthly paradise. He told an interviewer in 2005, "[I picked the name] because it puts people at peace with food-like being in Shangri-la, a peaceful place. It reduces or eliminates food compulsions, such as eating between meals and eating late at night. It is also a kind of ideal diet, just as Shangri-la was a kind of ideal place."

The Shangri-la diet in its present form requires the dieter to take either a small quantity of sugar water or a bland oil (extra-light olive oil, canola oil, or highly refined walnut oil) twice or three times a day, at least an hour before or an hour after consuming anything with flavor (including toothpaste or mouthwash). Roberts recommends 1 to 2 tablespoons of oil per day, which comes to 120 to 240 calories. The sugar mixture that Roberts used while losing weight was about 6 tablespoons of fructose (about 275 calories) diluted in a quart of water. According to Roberts, the oil or sugar water gives the dieter some calories in a nutrient-dense substance without flavor, thus breaking the learned association between flavor and calories. In effect, breaking this learned association tricks the body into lowering its set point, suppressing appetite, and leading to weight loss without hunger cravings. Roberts suggests taking the doses of oil or sugar water first thing in the morning and just before bedtime, but says that dieters should feel free to experiment and take their doses at other times that may work better for them.

The dieter need not make any other changes in the types of food they prefer. Roberts does, however, suggest ways in which people using the Shangri-la diet can lower their set point even further:

  • Avoid food commercials, cooking shows on television, and other visual stimuli related to feed. Seeing images of food is thought to increase the appetite.
  • Choose foods with a low glycemic index (GI). The glycemic index is a measurement system that evaluates the carbohydrates in specific foods for their effect on the body's blood sugar level within two hours after a meal. Foods with a low GI index are thought to satisfy hunger longer because they do not increase blood sugar levels as rapidly as foods with a high GI index.
  • Eat very bland foods other than the doses of oil (sushi, boiled rice, egg whites, etc.) to help break the association between flavor and calorie intake.
  • Practice "crazy spicing," which is Roberts's term for adding 10 to 20 spices chosen at random to one's food so that the original flavor is unrecognizable. As Roberts says, "No flavor recognition = no set point increase = lower set point = weight loss."

As of 2007, Roberts maintains that he has kept his weight at about 150 pounds by eating one 900-calorie meal per day, 150 calories of fruit sugar dissolved in water, and 2 pieces of fresh fruit (about 75 calories each).

Function

The function of the Shangri-la diet is to induce and maintain weight loss through an approach intended to reset the dieter's set point and improve control of appetite, rather than by eliminating specific food categories or restricting portion size.

Benefits

There is anecdotal evidence that the Shangri-la diet helps some people lose significant amounts of weight and maintain weight loss. Roberts, who claims to have lost 40 pounds on his diet and kept it off, maintains a website with a forum where people can post success stories.

Some specific benefits mentioned by people who have tried the Shangri-la diet:

  • They can still have their favorite foods if they wish.
  • The diet is easy to use because it doesn't require weighing and measuring foods or special cooking techniques.
  • It can be readily combined with cooking for a family, eating out, or other activities that are often problematic for dieters; as one person remarked, "No one knows you're doing it."
  • The oil or sugar water is inexpensive, making the Shangri-la diet one of the least stressful weight reduction regimens in terms of financial investment. An attorney who has successfully lost weight on the diet comments, "It is the cheapest diet I've ever been on. Five dollars worth of extra light (not extra virgin) olive oil from Costco or Sam's Club lasts you six months. I've probably eaten less than half the food I would have otherwise eaten in that time. Even if I bought a copy of the book every week ... I would still come out ahead on what I spend on food."

Precautions

According to Roberts, diabetics should not use the sugar water option but take only oil if they follow the Shangri-la diet. In addition, people should not use strong-flavored oils, such as ordinary olive oil or flax-seed oil, because the flavors in those oils will prevent breaking the brain's association between flavor and calorie intake.

Roberts also warns that individual body chemistry seems to affect the time it takes the Shangri-la diet to have an effect on the dieter's appetite. Some people apparently feel a difference within a few hours of their first dose of flavorless oil, others take several days, and some may require three weeks to notice a change in appetite.

Risks

There do not seem to be any major risks to health associated with the Shangri-la diet, provided that the dieter consumes an appropriate balance of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals; and consults a physician beforehand to exclude the possibility of a previously undiagnosed serious health condition.

Research and general acceptance

One of the major criticisms of the Shangri-la diet is its lack of pre-publication clinical testing on a group of subjects. John Ford, an assistant professor of medicine who is highly skeptical of Roberts's claims, notes that Roberts, himself a scholar, should have had more academic integrity. In an online article published in May 2006, shortly after the first press run of Roberts's book, Ford said, ". . . the scientific method exists for a reason: to root out poor hypotheses and to direct research towards those more likely to be fruitful. If Roberts were truly interested in investigating his approach, he should have subjected it to the dispassionate rigor of clinical study and peer review. His hypothesis is clearly testable with a controlled trial by a careful scientist willing to be proven wrong if necessary. That hasn't happened. Presenting a highly speculative idea as proven science to an audience unlikely to appreciate the difference between an academic psychologist dabbling in this field and seasoned experts who have devoted their careers to it is misleading at best . . . ."

Ford goes on to point out that the published article that Roberts has posted on his website is not about the Shangri-la diet but rather a speculative essay about self-experimentation as a way to generate ideas for further exploration. Self-experimentation is not necessarily inappropriate as a technique in medicine or nutrition; a recent book on the history of medical self-experimentation devotes a full chapter to physicians who risked their lives testing the role of vitamins in preventing scurvy and other diseases by subjecting themselves to diets lacking these vitamins. The question, however, is whether the results of Roberts's self-experiment with weight control can be generalized to other overweight people. As of early 2007, no articles about the effectiveness of or risks associated with the Shangri-la diet have appeared in any peer-reviewed medical or nutrition journal. In addition, the diet has not been endorsed by the American Dietetic Association (ADA) or any other professional nutritionists' association. It has, however, been featured in such popular magazines as Woman's World.

One researcher in the field of appetite and taste, however, has been quoted as saying that Roberts's theory about the human mind's association of food flavor with calorie intake is open to question. Dr. Mark Friedman, a physiologist at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia, an independent institute that collaborates on research projects with the University of Pennsylvania, commented in an interview with the Dallas Morning News that "The idea that the taste of food can set food intake and the calories you eat over the long term is an idea that has no scientific evidence." Friedman allows that research done at Monell does indicate that people tend to like safe, familiar foods and thereby learn certain food preferences. "But that doesn't mean you'll overeat."

 

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